Guide for Authors

Submitted manuscript, should embrace the following criteria. Content should not be related to local issues but preferably with critical national or global items. Having innovative and creative outcome. Methods should preferably be advanced and reproducible. ESB accepts manuscripts written in American English. 


Page Charges

There is no article processing charge.


Editorial Independency

ESB benefits from editorial freedom. The editors evaluate and accept articles based only on significance, originality, validity, and adherence to the aims and scope of the journal. Our editorial policy is consistent with the principles of editorial independence presented by WAME.


Submission of Manuscripts

The ESB uses a web-based submission and review system. Online submission facilitates the submission of manuscripts from authors and streamlines the reviewing and publication process. Should you presently be unable to take advantage of online submission and review, please call at editorial office on 0098-263-2803027 for further instructions. Authors may send queries concerning the submission process to Dr. Majid Homami, Managing editor via For enquiries about the review process and journal procedures, the editorial office can be contacted at As a matter of policy, the status of documents will not be discussed by telephone. Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions below, please go to the online submission system. First-time users must click “Register” on the navigation menu on the screen. The system will accept automatically your user name and password. Detailed guidelines for authors and reviewers are available at the submission site.


Review of Manuscripts

All manuscripts correctly submitted to the ESB will first be reviewed by the editors. Some manuscripts will be returned to authors at this stage if the paper is deemed inappropriate for publication in the ESB if the paper does not meet submission requirements, or if the paper is not deemed to have a sufficiently high priority. All papers considered suitable by the editors to progress further in the review process will undergo appropriate peer review and all papers provisionally accepted for publication will undergo a detailed statistical review. Code of Conduct and guidelines can be found at: COPE. The different forms of publishing ethics abuse, template letters to adapt and use for various situations, You can find the recognized publication ethics and malpractice statement here.


Peer Review Process

The ESB is a peer reviewed journal. All manu­scripts will be acknowledged upon pre­senting to the jour­nal office, provided that all stated requirements are met. According to the policy of peer review in our journal, a large extent of manuscripts is rejected through an in-house evaluation process based on a category of criteria including over flow of manuscripts, out of scope cases, poor outcome, local studies, clinical contents etc. This process takes no more than two weeks and the author(s) will be informed of the primary decision. The first stage passed manu­scripts are sent to two or three re­view­ers. The whole re­view proc­ess depends on re­ceiv­ing referees' comments and revising the manu­scripts based on these comments to the author. On receipt of the re­vised article from the au­thor, and after fi­nal ap­proving by refe­rees, the letter of ac­cep­tance is issued to the author. Authors have the right to communicate to the editor if they do not wish their manu­script to be reviewed by a par­ticular reviewer be­cause of potential con­flicts of inter­est. The author can also suggest the name of possible competent reviewers but it is up to the editor to accept it. No article is rejected unless nega­tive comments are re­ceived from at least two re­viewers. To assist the speed of peer review process, authors are requested to introduce four well-known experts with their contact details, but the Editor-in-Chief would be emancipated, finally. The revised version of the manuscript should be included with reply to referees’ comments separately article to article. In addition, the changes should be marked as underlined or colored text in the article.


The publication ethics and malpractice statement contains the subjects as below:
Publication and authorship: List of references, financial support; no plagiarism, no fraudulent data; forbidden to publish same research in more than one journal.


Authorship Criteria: Authorship credit should be based only on substantial contributions to each of the three components mentioned below:

(i). Concept and design of study or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data; 

(ii). Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 

(iii). Final approval of the version to be published; and 

(iv). Willingness to assume responsibility of the study.

Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is not sufficient contributor should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content of the manuscript.


Author’s responsibilities: Authors obliged to participate in peer review process; all authors have significantly contributed to the research; statement that all data in article are real and authentic; all authors are obliged to provide retractions or corrections of mistakes. Based on the newly released Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, by the ICMJE, “an Author” is generally considered to be someone who meets the following conditions: (I) Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work, (II) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (III) Final approval of the version to be published, and (IV) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.


Peer review/responsibility for the reviewers: Judgments are objective; reviewers have no conflict of interest with respect to the research, the authors and/or the research funders; reviewers point out relevant published work which is not yet cited; reviewed articles are treated confidentially.


Editorial responsibilities: Editors have complete responsibility and authority to reject/accept an article; editors have no conflict of interest with respect to articles they reject/accept; editors accept a paper when reasonably certain; when errors are found, editors promote publication of correction or retraction; editors preserve anonymity of reviewers.


Publishing ethics issues: Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) flowcharts and guidelines are approached in confronting any ethical misbehavior. The ESB also follows the guidelines mentioned in the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals issued by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Monitoring/safeguarding publishing ethics by editorial board; Guidelines for retracting articles; Maintain the integrity of the academic record; Preclude business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards; Always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed. no plagiarism, no fraudulent data. Authors can also send their manuscript by e-mail to:, ensuring that the manuscript adheres to the ESB Guide for Authors.


Human and Animal Rights: The research that involves human beings (or animals) must adhere to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.


Informed consent: All patients and participants of the research should be thoroughly informed about the aims of the study and any possible side effects of the drugs and intervention. Written informed consent from the participants or their legal guardians is necessary for any such studies. The Journal reserves the right to request the related documents.


Please note: All authors of accepted articles are required to sign an authorship statement. If your article is accepted for publication. you will be required to submit this form immediately: a delay in submitting the form signed by all authors will result in a delay in publication.


Preparation of manuscripts: Submitted manuscripts must not exceed the ESB word numbers based on article types, including References, Figure Legends and Tables. The number of Tables, Figures and References should be appropriate to the manuscript content and should not be excessive. Style and spelling Oxford English spelling should be used. Authors whose first language is not English are requested to have their manuscripts checked carefully before submission. This will help expedite the review process and avoid confusion.

Abbreviations of standard SI units of measurement only should be used.


Declaration of Helsinki: The authors should state that their study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki, that the locally appointed ethics committee has approved the research protocol and that informed consent has been obtained from the subjects (or their guardians).


Categories of articles

Original articles: Should contain a non-structured abstract (150-250 words, including background, methods, results, conclusions), 3-5 keywords, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusions, acknowledgement (if applicable), conflict of interest, references, maximum 4 tables and 4 figures. The word count should not exceed 5000 words excluding the references, abstract, figures and tables and about 15-35 references should be stated. Article should be divided into the following sections: (1) Title page, (2) Abstract and Keywords, (3) Introduction, (4) Materials and Methods, (5) Results, (6) Discussion, (7) Acknowledgements, (8) Conflict of interest, (9) References, (10) legends, (11) Appendices if available, (12) Tables, (13) Figures.


Short communication: Should contain a non-structured abstract (150-250 words), 3-5 keywords, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusion, acknowledgement (if applicable), conflict of interest, references, maximum 2 tables and 3 figures. The word count should not exceed 2000 words excluding the references, abstract, figures and tables and about 10-25 references should be stated.


Review articles: Should contain a non-structured abstract, up to 100 references and 5000 words.
-Narrative reviews: Narrative reviews should contain the critical assessment of the current knowledge of the field. Should contain a non-structured abstract, up to 100 references and 5000 words.
-Systematic reviews and meta-analysis: Systematic reviews of RCTs or observational studies will be accepted by the journal. The protocol of the study should adhere to PRISMA or MOOSE guidelines for systematic reviews of RCTs or Observational studies, respectively. Should contain a non-structured abstract, up to 100 references and 5000 words.


Letters to the Editor/Editorial/Correspondence: Letters should be less than 900 words. It can also discuss articles published in the ESB. If discussing articles published in the ESB, it should be submitted at most within 4 months after the publication of the main article discussed about. Letter will undergo peer review and will be edited to clarity. Up to 10 references can be stated.


Hypothesis/Ideas/Innovations/Current opinion: Papers in this section will provide our readers with focused coverage of topical issues in Environmental Sciences and related disciplines which are of high current interest and potential.


General format

Prepare your manuscript text using a Word processing package (save in *.doc, or *.docs format). Submissions of text in the form of PDF files are not permitted. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, including text, tables, legends and references. Numbering each page is required. Please avoid footnotes; use instead, and as sparingly as possible, parenthesis within brackets. Enter text in the style and order of the journal. Type references in the correct order and style of the ESB. Type unjustified, without hyphenation, except for compound words. Type headings in the style of the journal. Use the TAB key once for paragraph indents. Where possible use Times New Roman for the text font 12 and Symbols for the Greek and special characters. Use the word processing formatting features to indicate Bold, Italic, Greek, Maths, Superscript and Subscript characters. Clearly identify unusual symbols and Greek letters. Differentiate between the letter O and zero, and the letters I and l and the number 1. Mark the approximate position of each figure and table. Check the final copy of your paper carefully, as any spelling mistakes and errors may be translated into the typeset version.


Title page: The title page should include the following: (1) The title, (2) The name(s) of authors, (3) The institution(s) where work was performed, (4) The name, position, department, address, telephone number, fax number and e-mail address of the corresponding author and a running title.

Abstract: All abstracts may not contain 150-250 words.


Keywords: are used for indexing purposes; each article should provide a maximum of six keywords selected from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH).


Introduction: should provide a context or background and specifies the purpose or research objective of the study or observation.


Materials and methods: Must indicate clearly the steps taken to acquire the information. Be sure that it includes only information that was available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was written. It should be detailed (including: inclusion and exclusion criteria, etc) and may be separated into subsections. Repeating the details of standard techniques is best avoided. The software used for statistical analysis and description of the actual method should be mentioned.


Statistics: All manuscripts selected for publication will be reviewed for the appropriateness and accuracy of the statistical methods used and the interpretation of statistical results. All papers submitted should provide in their Methods section a subsection detailing the statistical methods, including the specific method used to summarize the data, the methods used to test their hypothesis testing and (if any) the level of significance used for hypothesis testing.


Ethics: The relevant Eth­ics Commit­tee/institution review boards of the respec­tive in­stitutions must approve the study. The study itself should follow the ethical standards of the Helsinki Declaration, as revised in 2013. The ESB will not consider any paper which is ethically unacceptable. The related items should be inserted under the ‘Materials and Methods’ section.


Results: should be presented in chronological sequence in the text, table, and illustration. Organize the results according to their importance. They should result from your own study.


Tables: Must be cited in order which they appear in the text; using Arabic numerals. Tables should be simple and should not duplicate information in the text of the paper. Tables should be typed with double spacing, but minimizing redundant space, and each should be placed on a separate sheet. Tables should be submitted, wherever possible, in a portrait, as opposed to landscape, layout. Each Table should be numbered in sequence using Arabic numerals. Tables should also have a title above and an explanatory footnote below.


Figures: The review process will not begin until all figures are received. Figures should be limited to the number necessary for clarity and must not duplicate data given in tables or in the text. They must be suitable for high quality reproduction and should be submitted in the desired final printed size so that reduction can be avoided. Figures should be no larger than 125 (height) x 180 (width) mm (5 x 7 inches) and should be submitted in a separate file from that of the manuscript.


Electronic submission of figures. Figures should be saved in TIFF or JPEG format at a resolution of at least 300 pixels per inch at the final printed size for color figures and photographs, and 1200 pixels per inch for black and white line drawings. Although some other formats can be translated into TIFF format by the publisher, the conversion may alter the tones, resolution and contrast of the image. Digital color art should be submitted in CMYK rather than RGB format, as the printing process requires colors to be separated into CMYK and this conversion can alter the intensity and brightness of colors. Therefore, authors should be satisfied with the colors in CMYK (both on screen and when printed) before submission. Please also keep in mind that colors can appear differently on different screens and printers. Failure to follow these guides could result in complications and delays.


Photographs: Photographs should be of sufficiently high quality with respect to detail, contrast and fineness of grain to withstand the inevitable loss of contrast and detail inherent in the printing process. Please indicate the magnification by a rule on the photograph. There is no charge for the inclusion of color figures. Color figures can be uploaded as online Supplementary data at no charge.

Line drawings: Please provide these as clear, sharp illustrations, suitable for reproduction as submitted. All labelling should be on the original. Faint and grey shading or stippling will be lost upon reproduction and should be avoided. Where various shadings are used within one figure please ensure that it is easy to differentiate between them, using standard shadings (see the hard copy of the journal for examples). There should be sufficient white space between lines and dots to ensure the areas will not fill in and look grey. If stippling is used, this should be made up of clear black dots with visible white space between them. Ensure that the size of the lettering is in proportion with the overall dimensions of the drawing. Ideally, the drawings should be submitted in the desired final printed size to avoid reduction. If submitting line drawings which require reduction, please check that the lettering will be clearly legible after the drawing has been reduced to the size at which it will be printed. After reduction, letters should not be smaller than 2 mm in height.


Figure legends: These should be on a separate, numbered manuscript sheet grouped under the heading “Legends” on a separate sheet of the manuscript after the References. Define all symbols and abbreviations used in the figure. Common abbreviations and others in the preceding text should not be redefined in the legend.


Permissions information: If illustrations or figures are to be duplicated from previously published work, written permission must be obtained both from the publisher and the author, and a credit line giving the source added to the relevant Figure Legend. If text material (250 to 300 words) is to be reproduced from published sources, written permission is required from both publisher and author. For shorter quotations, it is sufficient to add a bibliographic credit. The Letters containing the permission for the reproduction of either text or illustrations must accompany the manuscript. If you have been unable to obtain permission, please indicate this.


Discussion: Should emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow them. Possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings should be explored. The limitations of the study and the implications of the findings for future research or clinical practice should be explored. A Conclusion should be provided to state the final result that the author(s) has (have) reached. The results of other studies should not be stated in this section.


Acknowledgements: All sources of funding for the work should be acknowledged in a footnote on the title page and in the Acknowledgements within the manuscript, as should all the institutional affiliations of the authors (including corporate appointments).


Conflict of interest: All authors must make a formal statement at the time of submission indicating any potential conflict of interest that might constitute an embarrassment to any of the authors if it were not to be declared and were to emerge after publication. Such conflicts might include, but are not limited to, shareholding in or receipt of a grant or consultancy fee from a company whose product features in the submitted manuscript or which manufactures a competing product. All authors must submit a statement of Conflict of Interest to be published at the end of their article. If no Conflict of Interest is declared, this will be stated in the article using the following wording: ‘Conflict of Interest: none declared’ It is a condition of publication that a statement declaring any conflict of interest is included in the manuscript on first submission. Failure to insert a statement for all authors will delay the review process. If an organization encompasses any financial interest in the outcome of the study, the authors are appealed to provide a declaration that have full access to all the data in the study and take complete responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Authors are preferably asked to fill the uniform disclosure form available here.


References format: This reference guide details methods for citing and formatting reference entries in accordance with principles established by the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition (2020). For more information about APA style, visit here.


If you have access to the software, a corresponding EndNote output style can be downloaded from here by searching for the style named TF-Standard APA.


Supplementary Data: Supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader, can be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, list of investigators, or colour/additional figures. All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats (instructions for the preparation of Supplementary data can be viewed here). All material to be considered as Supplementary data must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication. Please indicate clearly the material intended as Supplementary data upon submission. Also ensure that the Supplementary data is referred to in the main manuscript where necessary.


Cover letter: Should contain a statement that you will not resubmit your article to another journal until the reviewing process will be completed. Also please indicate whether the authors have published or submitted any related papers from the same study.


Language and style: Contributions should be American English language. The text must be clear and concise, conforming to accepted standards of English style and usage. Non-native English speakers may be advised to seek professional help with the language. All materials should be typed in double line spacing numbered pages. Abbreviations should be standard and used just in necessary cases, after complete explanations in the first usage. The editorial office reserves the right to edit the submitted manuscripts in order to comply with the journal’s style. In any case, the authors are responsible for the published material.


Plagiarism: The authors are not allowed to utilize verbatim text of previously published papers or manuscripts submitted elsewhere. COPE’s flowcharts and guidelines are approached in cases where plagiarism is detected. The ESB follows its Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors of COPE. Plagiarism of text from a previously published manuscript by the same or another author is a serious publication offence. Small amounts of text may be used, but only where the source of the material quoted is clearly acknowledged and the text is inserted in quotation mark. If there is an allegation of plagiarism, scientific misconduct or fraud, ESB will follow the recommendations of the COPE and ICMJE. The ESB reserves the right to report the allegations to the author’s institution or any other agency.


Proofs: Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author for checking the production after acceptance of the article. Please also provide an e-mail address to enable page proofs to be sent via e-mail if not sent on line. These should be checked thoroughly for any possible changes or typographic errors. It is the intention of the Editor to review, correct and publish your article as quickly possible. To achieve this, it is important that all of your corrections are returned to us in one all-inclusive mail. Subsequent additional corrections will not be possible, so please ensure that your first communication is complete. If for any reason, after 2 days, the journal does not receive any reply, we consider the manuscript approved, and no changes will be acceptable after that. We request that authors pay particular attention to author's names and affiliations as it is essential that these details are accurate when the article is published. In this step, the authors absolutely, cannot add any authors or large sentences to the article, besides; they are not allowed to change the corresponding author. After approving the galley proof, no changes would be accepted and the responsibility would be on author(s) side.


Reprint: No reprints are presented to authors. The Journal is open access and all authors may acquire their article full text free of charge through the web.


Copyright information: The ESB allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions. Also the journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions. When papers are provisionally accepted, the corresponding author will be asked to return a signed letter to ESB (including signatures of all co-authors) or email to stating that all authors have seen and approved the paper and that the work has not been, and will not be, published elsewhere. Papers will not be published until the Editorial Office has received this letter. It is a condition of publication in the Journal that authors assign copyright to the ESB. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. In assigning copyright authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the ESB is acknowledged as the original place of publication and ESB is notified in writing and in advance.


Self-archiving and post-print policy: Authors may deposit the post-print of their article into other subject repositories or institutional repositories, but must stipulate that public availability be delayed until 12 months after the first online publication.


Retraction Policy: The ESB uses the COPE flowchart for retraction of a published article
to determine whether a published article should be retracted.


Correction of Errata: The journal will publish an erratum when a factual error in a published item has been documented.